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Hepatitis B


Important facts
Hepatitis B is a viral infection that affects the liver and can cause both acute and chronic diseases.The virus is transmitted through contact with the person's blood or other bodily fluids.It is estimated that there are 240 million people with chronic hepatitis B infection (defined as B-type hepatitis B antibodies for at least six months).Some 686,000 people die each year from hepatitis B infection, including cirrhosis and liver cancer 1.Hepatitis B is an important occupational hazard for health workers.Hepatitis B can be prevented by receiving a safe and effective vaccine.Hepatitis B is a hepatic infection that can threaten the life of the person infected by the virus. It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and expose people to the risk of dying severely from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
Hepatitis B vaccine has been available since 1982. This vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection, chronic disease and liver cancer caused by the infection.
Geographical distributionHepatitis B prevalence rates are highest in sub-Saharan Africa and East Asia, where chronic infections are between 5 and 10% of the adult population. There are also high rates of chronic infection in the Amazon and southern parts of Eastern and Central Europe. In the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent, the proportion of chronic sufferers is estimated at 2 to 5% of the total population. The proportion of chronic patients in Western Europe and North America is less than 1%.
Al SarayaThe hepatitis B virus can survive for at least 7 days. During this period, the virus remains able to cause infection if the body of an unguarded person enters the vaccine. The incubation period is 75 days on average, but can range from 30 to 180 days. The virus can be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can continue to be transformed into chronic hepatitis B.
In highly endemic areas, the most common route of transmission of hepatitis B is from mother to child at birth (perinatal delivery), or through horizontal transmission (exposure to contaminated blood), especially from an infected child to an uninfected child during the first five years Of old. The emergence of chronic infection is very common in infants infected with their mothers or before the age of five.
Hepatitis B can also be spread by skin or muscle exposure to contaminated blood or to various contaminated physical fluids, as well as through saliva, menstrual, vaginal and sperm fluids. Sexual transmission of hepatitis B can occur, particularly in unmarried men who have sex with other men, heterosexual men with sexual partners or who have links with sex workers. Infection in adults leads to chronic hepatitis in less than 5% of cases. Transmission of the virus can also occur as a result of the reuse of needles and syringes in health care settings or among injecting drug users. In addition, infection can occur during medical, surgical, dental, and tattoo operations, or through the use of razors and other objects contaminated with contaminated blood.
SymptomsMost people do not show symptoms during acute infection. However, some people suffer from symptoms at this stage lasting several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, severe stress, nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Acute hepatitis can develop in a small subset of patients with acute hepatic failure that may lead to death.
In some people, hepatitis B virus may also cause chronic hepatic infection that later develops into liver cirrhosis or liver cancer.
Who are at risk of chronic disease?The likelihood of infection turning to chronic infection depends on the age at which the person is infected. Children under the age of six with hepatitis B virus are the most likely to develop a chronic infection.
Neonatology and children:
Between 80 and 90% of infected infants during the first year of life develop into chronic infection;Between 30 and 50% of children infected before the age of six develop a chronic infection.Adults:
Less than 5% of healthy people, otherwise, become infected as adults and develop chronic inflammation.Between 20 and 30% of adults with chronic infections develop cirrhosis and / or liver cancer.DiagnosisIt is not clinically distinguishable between hepatitis B and types of inflammation caused by other viral agents, and laboratory confirmation is therefore indispensable. A number of blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor hepatitis B patients. These tests can be used to distinguish acute and chronic infections.
Laboratory diagnosis of hepatitis B infection is the detection of the surface antigen of HBsAg. WHO recommends testing all donated blood samples to ensure blood safety and avoid accidental transmission to recipients of blood products.
The acute hepatitis virus infection is characterized by the presence of HBsAg antigen and immunoglobulin (Mg) IgM antibodies to the primary antigen (HBcAg). During the initial stage of infection, patients also show serum serotonin
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